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The passages alluded to a form of ice hockey being played atop the frozen River Shannon where a sheep roast was being hurled in early January.
The game was then informally christened a hurling match and crowds watching it seemed to enjoy it. In publisher Alexander Slidell Mackenzie published an anecdote narrated to him by Admiral Charles Stewart, on how in the late s boys skimmed on skates on a glass surface in Philadelphia while hurling an object.
It narrated how around Collect Pond Park and Broadway when it was covered with ice skaters filled both areas. In , Joseph Le Petit Jr, a London publisher, published a picture by Benedictus Antonio Van Assen that showed two boys on skates holding sticks with a puck on the icy ground.
The setting was at Isleworth Ait an island on Thames River. The picture was believed to show a winter scene in December Two teenage boys were playing an early version of it dubbed shinty on ice, and drowned after the ice caved in.
Rules are now more strictly enforced, resulting in more penalties, which in turn provides more protection to the players and facilitates more goals being scored.
The governing body for United States' amateur hockey has implemented many new rules to reduce the number of stick-on-body occurrences, as well as other detrimental and illegal facets of the game "zero tolerance".
In men's hockey, but not in women's, a player may use his hip or shoulder to hit another player if the player has the puck or is the last to have touched it.
This use of the hip and shoulder is called body checking. Not all physical contact is legal—in particular, hits from behind, hits to the head and most types of forceful stick-on-body contact are illegal.
A delayed penalty call occurs when a penalty offence is committed by the team that does not have possession of the puck.
In this circumstance the team with possession of the puck is allowed to complete the play; that is, play continues until a goal is scored, a player on the opposing team gains control of the puck, or the team in possession commits an infraction or penalty of their own.
Because the team on which the penalty was called cannot control the puck without stopping play, it is impossible for them to score a goal.
In these cases, the team in possession of the puck can pull the goalie for an extra attacker without fear of being scored on. However, it is possible for the controlling team to mishandle the puck into their own net.
If a delayed penalty is signalled and the team in possession scores, the penalty is still assessed to the offending player, but not served.
In college games, the penalty is still enforced even if the team in possession scores. A typical game of hockey is governed by two to four officials on the ice, charged with enforcing the rules of the game.
There are typically two linesmen who are mainly responsible for calling "offside" and " icing " violations, breaking up fights, and conducting faceoffs,  and one or two referees ,  who call goals and all other penalties.
Linesmen can, however, report to the referee s that a penalty should be assessed against an offending player in some situations. On-ice officials are assisted by off-ice officials who act as goal judges, time keepers, and official scorers.
The most widespread system in use today is the "three-man system", that uses one referee and two linesmen. Another less commonly used system is the two referee and one linesman system.
This system is very close to the regular three-man system except for a few procedure changes. With the first being the National Hockey League, a number of leagues have started to implement the "four-official system", where an additional referee is added to aid in the calling of penalties normally difficult to assess by one single referee.
Officials are selected by the league they work for. Amateur hockey leagues use guidelines established by national organizing bodies as a basis for choosing their officiating staffs.
In North America, the national organizing bodies Hockey Canada and USA Hockey approve officials according to their experience level as well as their ability to pass rules knowledge and skating ability tests.
Hockey Canada has officiating levels I through VI. Since men's ice hockey is a full contact sport, body checks are allowed so injuries are a common occurrence.
Protective equipment is mandatory and is enforced in all competitive situations. This includes a helmet with either a visor or a full face mask, shoulder pads, elbow pads, mouth guard, protective gloves, heavily padded shorts also known as hockey pants or a girdle, athletic cup also known as a jock, for males; and jill, for females , shin pads, skates, and optionally a neck protector.
Goaltenders use different equipment. Goaltenders wear specialized goalie skates these skates are built more for movement side to side rather than forwards and backwards , a jock or jill, large leg pads there are size restrictions in certain leagues , blocking glove, catching glove, a chest protector, a goalie mask, and a large jersey.
Goaltenders' equipment has continually become larger and larger, leading to fewer goals in each game and many official rule changes. Hockey skates are optimized for physical acceleration, speed and manoeuvrability.
This includes rapid starts, stops, turns, and changes in skating direction. In addition, they must be rigid and tough to protect the skater's feet from contact with other skaters, sticks, pucks, the boards, and the ice itself.
Rigidity also improves the overall manoeuvrability of the skate. Hockey players usually adjust these parameters based on their skill level, position, and body type.
The hockey stick consists of a long, relatively wide, and slightly curved flat blade, attached to a shaft.
The curve itself has a big impact on its performance. A deep curve allows for lifting the puck easier while a shallow curve allows for easier backhand shots.
The flex of the stick also impacts the performance. Typically, a less flexible stick is meant for a stronger player since the player is looking for the right balanced flex that allows the stick to flex easily while still having a strong "whip-back" which sends the puck flying at high speeds.
It is quite distinct from sticks in other sports games and most suited to hitting and controlling the flat puck. Its unique shape contributed to the early development of the game.
Ice hockey is a full contact sport and carries a high risk of injury. Skate blades, hockey sticks, shoulder contact, hip contact, and hockey pucks can all potentially cause injuries.
The types of injuries associated with hockey include: lacerations, concussions, contusions, ligament tears, broken bones, hyperextensions, and muscle strains.
Women's ice hockey players are allowed to contact other players but are not allowed to body check. Compared to athletes who play other sports, ice hockey players are at higher risk of overuse injuries and injuries caused by early sports specialization by teenagers.
According to the Hughston Health Alert, "Lacerations to the head, scalp, and face are the most frequent types of injury [in hockey]. One of the leading causes of head injury is body checking from behind.
Due to the danger of delivering a check from behind, many leagues, including the NHL have made this a major and game misconduct penalty called "boarding".
Another type of check that accounts for many of the player-to-player contact concussions is a check to the head resulting in a misconduct penalty called "head contact".
A check to the head can be defined as delivering a hit while the receiving player's head is down and their waist is bent and the aggressor is targeting the opponent player's head.
The most dangerous result of a head injury in hockey can be classified as a concussion. Most concussions occur during player-to-player contact rather than when a player is checked into the boards.
In recent years, the NHL has implemented new rules which penalize and suspend players for illegal checks to the heads, as well as checks to unsuspecting players.
Concussions that players suffer may go unreported because there is no obvious physical signs if a player is not knocked unconscious.
This can prove to be dangerous if a player decides to return to play without receiving proper medical attention.
Studies show that ice hockey causes Occurrences of death from these injuries are rare. An important defensive tactic is checking—attempting to take the puck from an opponent or to remove the opponent from play.
Stick checking , sweep checking , and poke checking are legal uses of the stick to obtain possession of the puck. The neutral zone trap is designed to isolate the puck carrier in the neutral zone preventing him from entering the offensive zone.
Body checking is using one's shoulder or hip to strike an opponent who has the puck or who is the last to have touched it the last person to have touched the puck is still legally "in possession" of it, although a penalty is generally called if he is checked more than two seconds after his last touch.
Body checking is also a penalty in certain leagues in order to reduce the chance of injury to players.
Often the term checking is used to refer to body checking, with its true definition generally only propagated among fans of the game.
Offensive tactics include improving a team's position on the ice by advancing the puck out of one's zone towards the opponent's zone, progressively by gaining lines, first your own blue line, then the red line and finally the opponent's blue line.
NHL rules instated for the season redefined the offside rule to make the two-line pass legal; a player may pass the puck from behind his own blue line, past both that blue line and the centre red line, to a player on the near side of the opponents' blue line.
Offensive tactics are designed ultimately to score a goal by taking a shot. When a player purposely directs the puck towards the opponent's goal, he or she is said to "shoot" the puck.
A deflection is a shot that redirects a shot or a pass towards the goal from another player, by allowing the puck to strike the stick and carom towards the goal.
A one-timer is a shot struck directly off a pass, without receiving the pass and shooting in two separate actions. Headmanning the puck , also known as breaking out , is the tactic of rapidly passing to the player farthest down the ice.
Loafing , also known as cherry-picking , is when a player, usually a forward, skates behind an attacking team, instead of playing defence, in an attempt to create an easy scoring chance.
A team that is losing by one or two goals in the last few minutes of play will often elect to pull the goalie ; that is, remove the goaltender and replace him or her with an extra attacker on the ice in the hope of gaining enough advantage to score a goal.
However, it is an act of desperation, as it sometimes leads to the opposing team extending their lead by scoring a goal in the empty net.
One of the most important strategies for a team is their forecheck. Forechecking is the act of attacking the opposition in their defensive zone.
Forechecking is an important part of the dump and chase strategy i. Each team will use their own unique system but the main ones are: 2—1—2 , 1—2—2, and 1—4.
The 2—1—2 is the most basic forecheck system where two forwards will go in deep and pressure the opposition's defencemen, the third forward stays high and the two defencemen stay at the blueline.
The 1—2—2 is a bit more conservative system where one forward pressures the puck carrier and the other two forwards cover the oppositions' wingers, with the two defencemen staying at the blueline.
The 1—4 is the most defensive forecheck system, referred to as the neutral zone trap, where one forward will apply pressure to the puck carrier around the oppositions' blueline and the other 4 players stand basically in a line by their blueline in hopes the opposition will skate into one of them.
Another strategy is the left wing lock , which has two forwards pressure the puck and the left wing and the two defencemen stay at the blueline. There are many other little tactics used in the game of hockey.
Cycling moves the puck along the boards in the offensive zone to create a scoring chance by making defenders tired or moving them out of position.
Pinching is when a defenceman pressures the opposition's winger in the offensive zone when they are breaking out, attempting to stop their attack and keep the puck in the offensive zone.
A saucer pass is a pass used when an opposition's stick or body is in the passing lane. It is the act of raising the puck over the obstruction and having it land on a teammate's stick.
A deke , short for "decoy", is a feint with the body or stick to fool a defender or the goalie. Many modern players, such as Pavel Datsyuk , Sidney Crosby and Patrick Kane , have picked up the skill of "dangling", which is fancier deking and requires more stick handling skills.
Although fighting is officially prohibited in the rules, it is not an uncommon occurrence at the professional level, and its prevalence has been both a target of criticism and a considerable draw for the sport.
At the professional level in North America fights are unofficially condoned. Enforcers and other players fight to demoralize the opposing players while exciting their own, as well as settling personal scores.
A fight will also break out if one of the team's skilled players gets hit hard or someone receives what the team perceives as a dirty hit.
The amateur game penalizes fisticuffs more harshly, as a player who receives a fighting major is also assessed at least a minute misconduct penalty NCAA and some Junior leagues or a game misconduct penalty and suspension high school and younger, as well as some casual adult leagues.
Ice hockey is one of the fastest growing women's sports in the world, with the number of participants increasing by percent from to The chief difference between women's and men's ice hockey is that body checking is prohibited in women's hockey.
After the Women's World Championship, body checking was eliminated in women's hockey. In current IIHF women's competition, body checking is either a minor or major penalty , decided at the referee's discretion.
In Canada, to some extent ringette has served as the female counterpart to ice hockey, in the sense that traditionally, boys have played hockey while girls have played ringette.
Women are known to have played the game in the 19th century. Several games were recorded in the s in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. The women of Lord Stanley's family were known to participate in the game of ice hockey on the outdoor ice rink at Rideau Hall , the residence of Canada's Governor-General.
The game developed at first without an organizing body. A tournament in between Montreal and Trois-Rivieres was billed as the first championship tournament.
Several tournaments, such as at the Banff Winter Carnival, were held in the early 20th century and numerous women's teams such as the Seattle Vamps and Vancouver Amazons existed.
Starting in the s, the game spread to universities. Today, the sport is played from youth through adult leagues, and in the universities of North America and internationally.
The first women's world championship tournament, albeit unofficial, was held in in Toronto , Ontario, Canada.
Women's ice hockey was added as a medal sport at the Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. The United States won the gold, Canada won the silver and Finland won the bronze medal.
Louis Blues. With interest in women's ice hockey growing, between and the number of registered female players worldwide grew from , to , The future of international women's ice hockey was discussed at the World Hockey Summit in , and IIHF member associations could work together.
She stated the European players were talented, but their respective national team programs were not given the same level of support as the European men's national teams, or the North American women's national teams.
The CWHL was founded in and originally consisted of seven teams in Canada, but had several membership changes including adding a team in the United States in When the league launched, its players were only compensated for travel and equipment.
The league began paying its players a stipend in the —18 season when the league launched its first teams in China.
The league expanded to five teams in with the addition of the formerly independent Minnesota Whitecaps. On April 22, , the NWHL officially announced that Toronto was awarded an expansion team for the —21 season growing the league to six teams.
The NHL is by far the best attended and most popular ice hockey league in the world, and is among the major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada.
The league's history began after Canada's National Hockey Association decided to disband in ; the result was the creation of the National Hockey League with four teams.
The league expanded to the United States beginning in and had as many as 10 teams before contracting to six teams by — In , the NHL doubled in size to 12 teams, undertaking one of the greatest expansions in professional sports history.
A few years later, in , a new team league, the World Hockey Association WHA was formed and due to its ensuing rivalry with the NHL, it caused an escalation in players salaries.
It comprises 31 teams from the United States and Canada. U Sports ice hockey is the highest level of play at the Canadian university level under the auspices of U Sports, Canada's governing body for university sports.
As these players compete at the university level, they are obligated to follow the rule of standard eligibility of five years.
The American Collegiate Hockey Association is composed of college teams at the club level. It attracts players from Canada, the United States and Europe.
The major junior players are considered amateurs as they are under years-old and not paid a salary, however, they do get a stipend and play a schedule similar to a professional league.
Typically, the NHL drafts many players directly from the major junior leagues. Players in this league are also amateur with players required to be under years old, but do not get a stipend, which allows players to retain their eligibility for participation in NCAA ice hockey.
The league is the direct successor to the Russian Super League , which in turn was the successor to the Soviet League , the history of which dates back to the Soviet adoption of ice hockey in the s.
The KHL was launched in with clubs predominantly from Russia, but featuring teams from other post-Soviet states. The league expanded beyond the former Soviet countries beginning in the —12 season , with clubs in Croatia and Slovakia.
This league features 24 teams from Russia and 2 from Kazakhstan. The third division is the Russian Hockey League , which features only teams from Russia.
It features 32 teams from post-Soviet states, predominantly Russia. Several countries in Europe have their own top professional senior leagues. Beginning in the —15 season, the Champions Hockey League was launched, a league consisting of first-tier teams from several European countries, running parallel to the teams' domestic leagues.
The competition is meant to serve as a Europe-wide ice hockey club championship. The competition is a direct successor to the European Trophy and is related to the —09 tournament of the same name.
There are also several annual tournaments for clubs, held outside of league play. One of the oldest international ice hockey competition for clubs is the Spengler Cup , held every year in Davos , Switzerland, between Christmas and New Year's Day.
The Memorial Cup , a competition for junior-level age 20 and under clubs is held annually from a pool of junior championship teams in Canada and the United States.
The World Junior Club Cup is an annual tournament of junior ice hockey clubs representing each of the top junior leagues.
As of , the two top teams of the previous season from each league compete in the Trans-Tasman Champions League.
Ice hockey in Africa is a small but growing sport; while no African ice hockey playing nation has a domestic national leagues, there are several regional leagues in South Africa.
Ice hockey has been played at the Winter Olympics since and was played at the summer games in Hockey is Canada's national winter sport, and Canadians are extremely passionate about the game.
The nation has traditionally done very well at the Olympic games, winning 6 of the first 7 gold medals. However, by its amateur club teams and national teams could not compete with the teams of government-supported players from the Soviet Union.
The USSR won all but two gold medals from to The United States won its first gold medal in On the way to winning the gold medal at the Lake Placid Olympics , amateur US college players defeated the heavily favoured Soviet squad—an event known as the " Miracle on Ice " in the United States.
Restrictions on professional players were fully dropped at the games in Calgary. NHL agreed to participate ten years later.
Teams are selected from the available players by the individual federations, without restriction on amateur or professional status.
Since it is held in the spring, the tournament coincides with the annual NHL Stanley Cup playoffs and many of the top players are hence not available to participate in the tournament.
Many of the NHL players who do play in the IIHF tournament come from teams eliminated before the playoffs or in the first round, and federations often hold open spots until the tournament to allow for players to join the tournament after their club team is eliminated.
For many years, the tournament was an amateur-only tournament, but this restriction was removed, beginning in In the spirit of best-versus-best without restrictions on amateur or professional status, the series were followed by five Canada Cup tournaments, played in North America.
The United States won in and Canada won in and Since the initial women's world championships in , there have been fifteen tournaments.
The annual Euro Hockey Tour , an unofficial European championship between the national men's teams of the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia and Sweden have been played since — The attendance record for an ice hockey game was set on December 11, , when the University of Michigan 's men's ice hockey team faced cross-state rival Michigan State in an event billed as " The Big Chill at the Big House ".
The game was played at Michigan's American football venue, Michigan Stadium in Ann Arbor , with a capacity of , as of the football season. When UM stopped sales to the public on May 6, , with plans to reserve remaining tickets for students, over , tickets had been sold for the event.
Guinness World Records , using a count of ticketed fans who actually entered the stadium instead of UM's figure of tickets sold, announced a final figure of , The record was approached but not broken at the NHL Winter Classic , which also held at Michigan Stadium, with the Detroit Red Wings as the home team and the Toronto Maple Leafs as the opposing team with an announced crowd of , Number of registered hockey players, including male, female and junior, provided by the respective countries' federations.
Note that this list only includes the 38 of 81 IIHF member countries with more than 1, registered players as of October Pond hockey is a form of ice hockey played generally as pick-up hockey on lakes, ponds and artificial outdoor rinks during the winter.
Pond hockey is commonly referred to in hockey circles as shinny. Its rules differ from traditional hockey because there is no hitting and very little shooting, placing a greater emphasis on skating, stickhandling and passing abilities.
Sledge hockey is an adaption of ice hockey designed for players who have a physical disability. Players are seated in sleds and use a specialized hockey stick that also helps the player navigate on the ice.
The sport was created in Sweden in the early s, and is played under similar rules to ice hockey. Ice hockey is the official winter sport of Canada.
Ice hockey, partially because of its popularity as a major professional sport, has been a source of inspiration for numerous films, television episodes and songs in North American popular culture.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ice hockey disambiguation. The Toronto Maple Leafs white defend their goal against the Washington Capitals red during the first round of the Stanley Cup playoffs.
Main article: Penalty ice hockey. A skater cross-checking his opponent, checking him with the shaft of his stick with two hands.
A skater hooking his opponent, using his stick to restrain him. The following are examples of rule infractions in the sport, and a penalty may be assessed against that player.
Main article: Official ice hockey. Main article: Ice hockey equipment. Main article: Checking ice hockey. Main articles: Shot ice hockey , Slapshot , Wrist shot , Snap shot ice hockey , Backhand slapshot , Offside ice hockey , Extra attacker , and Deke ice hockey.
Main article: Fighting in ice hockey. See also: Canadian women's ice hockey history and History of women's ice hockey in the United States.
Main article: List of ice hockey leagues. Main article: List of ice hockey games with highest attendance.
Main article: Pond hockey. Main article: Sledge hockey. Main article: Ice hockey in popular culture.
Ice hockey portal. The activity was very popular in some areas, with newspapers reporting the game results as early as — on Saturday, 5 February of that year, the Huntingdon Bedford and Peterborough Gazette reported a bandy game between Colne and Bluntisham, which the former team won.
Then, on 3 February , teams from Swavesey and Over met on Mare Fen for a game of bandy as well as some skating races.
The exact score is not known, but the local newspaper reported that Swavesey won and listed the names of all the players, eleven per side.
This indicates a high level of formality in the organization of the game in England by at least the early s. By that time, at least two books had been published containing instructions for playing bandy or hockey — the two terms being considered interchangeable at the time — and indicating that it could be played on ice with skates.
As in the earlier edition, hockey was still enthusiastically promoted as a winter sport to be practiced with ice skates. These books clearly predate the rules published by the Montreal Gazette in and should therefore be considered the first sets of rules for ice hockey.
The HA oversaw the practice of field hockey , but its rules were also used in England for ice hockey until , when the National Skating Association published its own set.
In short, by , people were playing ice hockey in England and had developed rules for playing the game.
This was part of a long development of the sport in the British Isles, which included games of shinty being played on ice as early as There is clear evidence that the game was being played in Canada in the 19th century, even prior to the famous game played in Montreal on 3 March This is hardly surprising, given that settlers from Great Britain or Ireland would have brought with them their folk games, as would members of the British army and navy who were stationed in Canada.
The claim has been made that Windsor , Nova Scotia , was the birthplace of ice hockey. The passage does not, however, provide much detail as to how the game was played or whether skates were used.
Some of the earliest evidence for ice hockey in Canada was recorded by British officers, who brought the sport with them. In , for example, researchers discovered two letters written by Sir John Franklin in , during one of his attempts to find the Northwest Passage.
This has led some to argue that Deline, in the Northwest Territories , was the birthplace of hockey in Canada.
It is unlikely, therefore, that this was the first game of ice hockey. There is also evidence that in , games of ice hockey were played by British soldiers on Chippewa Creek in the Niagara region although this evidence only came to light in Hockey was also played in Kingston , Ontario, in Sir Arthur Freeling, then a first lieutenant stationed in Kingston, organized games for his men and wrote about them in his diary.
Like Franklin and Levinge, Freeling was a British officer who would have learned the game in his home country. Freeling was recalled to England in , and it would be a few decades before ice hockey was played again in Kingston.
Despite this, Kingston was long held to be the birthplace of ice hockey, owing in large part to efforts by Captain James T.
The decision was later rescinded, and the Hall opened in Toronto. While few reports of specific games exist, there is also no doubt that ice hockey was played on a regular basis in Halifax and Dartmouth , Nova Scotia, prior to It is therefore clear that games resembling ice hockey were played in Canada in the 19th century, likely brought to the country by settlers or military personnel from the British Isles.
On that date, the Montreal Gazette made the following announcement:. Good fun may be expected, as some of the players are reputed to be exceedingly expert at the game.
Some fears have been expressed on the part of intending spectators that accidents were likely to occur through the ball flying about in too lively a manner, to the imminent danger of lookers on, but we understand that the game will be played with a flat circular piece of wood, thus preventing all danger of its leaving the surface of the ice.
Subscribers will be admitted on presentation of their tickets. The game, played between two teams of nine players, ended in a 2—1 win for the team captained by James George Aylwin Creighton originally from Nova Scotia over the team captained by Charles Edward Torrance.
He is credited with organizing the first recorded indoor ice hockey match at Montreal, Quebec, Canada in He helped popularize the sport in Montreal and later in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada after he moved to Ottawa in where he served for 48 years as the Law Clerk to the Canadian Senate.
Photo dated March in Ottawa, Ontario. In , the IIHF officially recognized this as the first game of organized ice hockey. Was this truly the first organized ice hockey game?
It is likely the rules originated with members of the local British garrison, who would have been using English hockey rules.
However, this ignores the use of bungs in England that began in the midth century. Newspaper reports include a list of all the players but did not provide the identity of the goal scorers, the duration of the game, or whether there was a referee or umpire, or goalies.
It is also known that the players were not wearing uniforms. In contrast, there exist a few detailed reports of games of ice hockey or bandy from English newspapers in the early s, which often included the names of goal scorers, and, in at least one case, even the times of the goals.
These were clearly well-organized matches. Another exhibition game was played two weeks later, this time with uniforms.
The identity of the teams was also more specific, with the Montreal Football Club wearing its usual colours facing a team from the Victoria Skating Club.